Домашняя контрольная работа 2

ГБОУ СПО ОКСЭИ

ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК

Методические указания

По выполнению домашних контрольных работ

для студентов, обучающихся по специальностям:

080114, 080110

Введение

Методические указания подготовлены в соответствии с учебной программой курса «Иностранный язык» и требований Государственного образовательного стандарта среднего профессионального образования.

Цель данного указания - помочь студентам самостоятельного рассмотреть спецлексику и тексты, которые касаются специальности обучающегося; изучить и освоить грамматический материал; владеть минимумом словарного запаса иностранных слов; использование грамматических основ при выполнении практической работы.

Успешное овладение студентами дисциплины «Иностранный язык» позволит применить полученные знания на практике при переводе технических и экономических текстов и в элементарных употреблениях грамматики.

Методические указания подготовлены для студентов заочной формы обучения экономических и технических специальностей. Использование их в изучение курса предполагает приобретения у студентов твердых знаний теории предмета, умение формировать элементарные предложения и выполнять перевод.

Выполнение контрольной работы ведет к индивидуальному, более ответственному, и самостоятельному изучению студентами данной дисциплины, закреплению полученных знаний, а так же приобретению навыков проведения комплексных статистических исследований.

Общие указания по выполнению домашней контрольной работы 1.

Методические указания для выполнения контрольной работы по английскому языку составлены в соответствии с требованиями Государственного образовательного стандарта среднего профессионального образования, содержат перечень вопросов к самоподготовки и курс лекций необходимых для изучения дисциплины. Они предназначены для самостоятельного изучения студентами приемов перевода текстов и правильное применение грамматических приемов при подготовки специалистов по следующим специальностям 080114, 080110.

Студенты выбирают номера вариантов решения контрольных работ по последней цифре номера личного дела. Замена вариантов не разрешается.

Методическими указаниями предлагаются десять вариантов заданий. При выполнении контрольной работы студенты самостоятельно изучают литературу и приемы перевода.

Для выполнения данной работы следует внимательно ознакомиться с рекомендуемой литературой, изучить ее, осмыслить суть и содержание поставленной задачи в выполнении задания.

Завершается выполнение контрольной работы списком использованной студентом литературы. Список литературы выстраивается в алфавитном порядке авторов. Оформление литературы производится с помощью полного библиографического описания соответствующей книги или издания.

При появлении неясностей, вопросов, студенту следует посетить консультацию преподавателя.

Полученные замечания, отмеченные преподавателем после проверки контрольной работы, следует устранить выполнив работу над ошибками в конце работы. Контрольная работа с доработкой по исправлению допущенных ошибок и замечаний предоставить преподавателю для повторной проверки. Без замечаний, проверенная контрольная работа будет зачтена и допущена к защите, а с вновь выявленными замечаниями и ошибками возвращается студенту на доработку.



Оформление контрольной работы

Студенты должны выполнять следующие требования к оформлению контрольной работы и ее защите.

Оформление контрольной работы рекомендуется выполнять в текстовом редакторе Word; шрифт 14 Times New roman; межстрочный интервал 1.5; текст выравнивать по ширине листа; поля вверху 20 мм, внизу 20 мм, справа 10 мм, слева 30 мм; абзац 1.25; с последующей распечаткой в формате А4.

Допускается выполнение контрольной работы в рукописном варианте в отдельной тетради, объемом 18 и более листов, на обложке тетради должен быть титульный лист.

На каждой странице контрольной работы должны быть предусмотрены поля, для отметки преподавателям замечаний. Последний срок сдачи контрольной работы 10 дней до сессии, контрольная работа должна быть зарегистрирована и сдана для проверки. При проверки работа может быть зачтена или не зачтена. Работа не зачитывается по ряду замечаний, таких как, не соответствует варианту, не полностью выполнены задания, много недостатков при выполнении упражнений.

Не зачтенная контрольная работа возвращается студенту на доработку для устранения имеющихся недостатков. Устранение замечаний должны быть выполнены после раздела «использованная литература», где выписываются недостатки, а затем правильное выполнение.

После доработки работа направляется для повторной проверки преподавателю. Зачтенная контрольная работа передается студенту для ее защиты в период сессии или, в крайнем случае, на экзамене.

Домашняя контрольная работа 1

Вариант 1

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием —s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Most of London’s places of interest are to the north of the river Thames.

2. Hyde Park covers 369 acres.

3. The “Big Ben” clock weights 13.5 tons.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. His father was one of the leaders of the partisan movement during World War II.

2. This boy studies at the Moscow Patrice Lumumba Friendship University.

3. Not long ago our family moved into a large three-room flat.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. The more I studied the English language, the more I liked it.

2. London is one of the oldest ports in Britain.

3. This house is smaller than that one.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. No student of that group studies German.

2. Some three thousand people are present at the meeting.

3. Have you any books on physics?

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The teacher will come here later.

2. The student made no mistakes in his translation.

3. London is the capital of Great Britain.

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

London

London is the capital of Great Britain. It lies in the South East of England on both banks of the river Thames. London is more than twenty centuries ago.

The heart of the capital is the City. It is the financial and business centre of the country. It contains almost all important England banks and offices.

The West End of London is famous for its beautiful monuments and palaces, fine parks, fashionable shops and big hotels. The East End is quite different from the West End. It is the districts of factories, plants and the docks. The main branches of industry are machine-building, ship-building, metal-processing and others. The narrow streets and poor houses of East End present a contrast to the rich people of the West End.

London has many places of interest. One of them is Buckingham Palace. It's the residence of the Queen. Another place of interest is the British Museum, the biggest museum in London. The museum is famous for its library — one of the richest in the world.

The Tower of London is one of the most interesting places in London. It was a fortress, a royal residence, a prison, now it is a museum. London is famous for its green parks. Hyde Park is the most popular of them. If you are lucky enough to find yourself in London some day you will have a lot to see and enjoy there.

VII. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. How old is London?

2. Into which parts is London divided?

3. Do you know any places of interest in London?

Вариант 2

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием —s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. My sister’s sons are students.

2. A well-known scientist works at this plant.

3. Both Russian and foreign artists take part in the performances.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. Several Omsk University mathematics work on this problem.

2. There are only daylight lamps in this class.

3. The bus station is 100 meters far from here.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. Pskov is smaller than Saint-Petersburg.

2. The more often you visit Moscow, the more you like it.

3. The largest lake in the world is the Baikal.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. We saw some beautiful monuments in this city.

2. Almost any student of this group knows English.

3. There are no skyscrapers in Washington.

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. My sister lives in San Francisco.

2. There will be a lot of people at the lecture today.

3. Our students read a lot of English books last year.

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

Tyumen

Tyumen is the oldest city in Siberia, it was founded in 1586. Tyumen is the administrative centre of the Tyumen Region. Tyumen stands on the banks of the river Таrа and has 350 000 residents.

Today Tyumen is one of the most important business centers of Russia. In the fifties and sixties, oil and gas fields were discover­ed in Western Siberia and Tyumen has become the country’s main oil-producing region. Sometimes it is called "the Oil Capital of Siberia". Many million tons of oil are produced in the region. There are however many other industries in this region.

Tyumen is not simply a major industrial centre and transport junction, it is also the cultural capital of a large territory and it has five higher educational establishments including a university.

Tyumen is growing and improving at a rapid rate. Many new blocks of flats, schools, hospitals, cinemas and educational establishments have been built there. It is a very beautiful city.

VII. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. When was Tyumen founded?

2. Where is Tyumen located?

3. Why is Tyumen called “the Oil Capital of Siberia”?

Вариант 3

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием —s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The students attend lectures and seminars on the History.

2. The course ends in two weeks.

3. I like Mary’s flat.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

4. During its four-century-old history the city experienced several dramatic events.

5. We have a large state library in our city.

6. The scientists developed new synthetic rubber products.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. This story is shorter than that one.

2. This boy is one of the best students of our group.

3. The warmer the weather the better I feel.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. You can read any magazine you like.

2. No newspaper in England is as popular as The Times.

3. There are some places of interests in our town.

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. My friends will go to the State History Museum tomorrow.

2. This boy first came to Moscow in 2002.

3. I am a student.

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

Orenburg

Orenburg region is rather large. It is famous for gas and wheat. The main town of Orenburg region is Orenburg.

Orenburg is situated in the South East of the South Ural region on the Ural river. It is on the borderline between two continents: Europe and Asia. It was built as a fortress-town in 1743. It was attacked by Pugachev’s troops, but they couldn’t win the victory. The place for Orenburg was chosen by Kirillov, Rychkov and Neplyuev. Neplyuev became the first governor of Orenburg.

Many famous people lived in the town or visited it. There are Pushkin, Shevchenko, Aksakov and others. The first cosmonaut Y. Gagarin lived and studied in Orenburg too.

There are many places of interest in Orenburg. The town has many green parks and squares, clubs and cinemas, theatres and museums, monuments and old beautiful buildings. The central part of Orenburg is the Sovetskaya street. There are many shops, he Drama Theatre, the Puppet-show, the monument to Chkalov, the museums in it.

VII. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. When was Orenburg founded?

2. Who became the first governor of Orenburg?

3. Do you know any places of interest in Orenburg?

Вариант 4

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием —s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The White House is the President's residence.

2. There are high mountains and flat prairies in the USA.

3. On the other bank of the Potomac lies the Arlington National Cemetery.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. The United States President lives in the White House.

2. There are a lot of cherry-trees near the Jefferson Memorial.

3. The Houses of Parliament are not far from here.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. No building in Washington may be more than 40 metres tall.

2. The Washington Monument is the tallest landmark in the city.

3. There are no sky-scrapers in Washington because no other building must be taller than the Capitol.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. At some of the London Underground stations there are lifts, others have escalators.

2. Any student of our group can speak on the history of the USA.

3. Have you any books on chemistry?

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. George Washington selected the place for the capital of the USA.

2. In a few days she will leave for New York.

3. Like New York Chicago has two different parts.

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

Washington

Washington, the capital of the United States, is situated on the Potomac River in the district of Columbia. The district is a piece of land ten miles square and it doesn't belong to any one state but to all the states.

Washington is not the largest city of the United States. It is not as large as New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit or Los Angeles. It has a population of 900,000 people. Washington is a one-industry city. That industry is government. Washington is to be the seat of the government of nation.

Washington has many historical places. The largest and the tallest among the buildings is the Capitol with its Hall of Representatives and Senate Chamber. Washington is the most unusual city of America. There are no sky-scrapers here because no other building must be taller than the Capitol.

Not far from the Capitol is the Library of Congress, the largest library in the States. In Washington there is the White House, a two-storied white building, home of the president. There are some important museums and places of interest in Washington. For example, the Washington Monument, the Jefferson Memorial and Lincoln Memorial. There are five universities in Washington. Thousands of tourists visit Washington every day to see the capital of the United States of America.

VII. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. Is Washington the capital of the United States?

2. What is the largest and the tallest building in Washington?

3. Do you know any places of interest in London?

Вариант 5

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием —s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. St. Petersburg exports a great variety of goods.

2. Last month my friend read a very interesting book on St. Petersburg's history.

3. The inhabitants of St. Petersburg are fond of their city.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. The students of our group will go to the State History Museum tomorrow.

2. Not long ago we moved into a large four-room flat.

3. Teams of figure skaters undergo intensive training at the Sports Center.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. Summer Garden is one of the most favourite parks of the citizens of St. Petersburg.

2. The more you learn of the history of St. Petersburg the more you like it.

3. St. Basil's Cathedral is one of the best masterpieces of Russian architecture.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. Some 800 people visit the Hermitage every day.

2. Does he know any foreign language?

3. Any exhibit of this museum is valuable.

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. It certainly takes more than one visit to see all St. Petersburg's places of interest.

2. Peter the Great founded St. Petersburg in 1703.

3. In two years my brother will become a driller.

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

St. Petersburg

St. Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia and one of its most beautiful cities. Its population is more than 5 million people. St. Petersburg is a major industrial, cultural and scientific center, a large port on the Baltic Sea; and one of the largest rail and motorway junctions.

Peter the Great founded the city in 1703 as a future capital. After that Russia got the so-called Window to Europe, which was very important for her foreign trade. Now St. Petersburg plants manufacture the world's biggest steam and hydraulic turbines, along with modern lathes, electronic and electrical appliances.

St. Petersburg, major scientific and cultural center, has over 40 higher educational establishments and many research institutes, 18 theatres, 7 concert halls and over 2.000 public libraries. St. Petersburg is indeed a wonderful city. The Winter Palace, the Hermitage, the Russian Museum, St. Isaac's Cathedral, the Peter-and-Paul Fortress, the Admiralty building attract thousands of tourists from every corner of the world. St. Petersburg's many museums house some of the world's most famous art collections. The Hermitage, for example, contains the richest collection of pictures in the world. One of the most interesting museums in St. Petersburg is the Russian Museum where you can see wonderful collections of beautiful works by famous Russian painters. St. Petersburg has a lot of symbols. Perhaps the most famous symbol is the monument to Peter the Great in Dekabrists Square.

VII. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. When was St. Petersburg founded?

2. Why is St. Petersburg major scientific and cultural center?

3. Where can you see wonderful collections of beautiful works by famous Russian painters?

Вариант 6

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием —s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The lecturer gave several examples of the Novosibirsk scientists' ties.

2. The foundation of Novosibirsk dates back to 1893.

3. Novosibirsk Science Center incorporates nearly 40 scientific researches institutes.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. Ice-hockey players undergo intensive training at the Sports Center of Novosibirsk.

2. The doors of the Novosibirsk Young People's Theatre are always open to children and grown-ups.

3. The bus station is not far from my house.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. Your translation is better than mine.

2. The city is becoming more beautiful with every year.

3. This tower is taller than that one.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. Any monument in Novosibirsk has its own history.

2. Nobody knew anything about this experiment.

3. The names of some streets and squares are living history of the city.

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. There are many places of interest in Novosibirsk.

2. Engineering was his second profession.

3. It will be a good idea.

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

Novosibirsk

Novosibirsk is a large industrial, scientific and cultural center of Siberia. It is situated on both banks of the river Ob. Novosibirsk is the third largest center after Moscow and St. Petersburg with a population about 2 million people. The city was founded in 1893. Its foundation is associated with the name of the well-known Russian writer of the later half of the I9th century N. Garin-Mikhailovsky. Engineering was his second profession. The residents of Novosibirsk called the railway square of the city by his name.

Today Novosibirsk is a big industrial center, so-called "Siberian Chicago". It turns out machines and different equipment. There are 200 big enterprises in the city. They produce various machine tools, hydropresses, complicated instruments etc.

There are nearly 20 academic scientific research institutes and organizations of Siberian department of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk Academgorodok. It is the first town of science. There are 16 higher institutes of learning.

Novosibirsk citizens are proud of the beautiful theaters. They are the State Academic Theater of Opera and Ballet, the Young People's Theater named "Globus", the Opperetta House, the Drama Theater named "Old house" and the Puppet Theater. On the bank of the river Kamenka stands the tall building of the State Public Scientific and Technical Library.

VII. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. When was Novosibirsk founded?

2. Why is Novosibirsk a big industrial center?

3. Do you know any places of interest in Novosibirsk?

Вариант 7

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием —s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The first mention of Moscow dates back to 1147.

2. They say the State Tretyakov Gallery is one of the largest museums.

3. Both Russian and foreign artists take part in the performance in Red Square.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. During its eight-century-old history Moscow experienced many dramatic events.

2. The student body of Moscow University alone is over 28,500.

3. The 40-metre-high arch is one of the most popular places of interest.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. The more experiments we carry out, the more data we obtain.

2. Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities of Russia.

3. The Тzаг-BelI is the biggest bell in the world.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. No student of this group studies Spanish.

2. Some five thousand students are present at the meeting.

3. Have they any cards?

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. There are many places of interest in Moscow.

2. A few hours later the Prince and his men reached a small settlement on the bank of the Moskva River.

3. They will visit Moscow next summer.

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

Moscow

Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is the largest industrial and cultural center of the country. With a population of more than 8 million the city occupies an area of 87,500 hectares.

Moscow is an old city. Prince Yuri Dolgoruki founded the city in the middle of the 12th century. In the 13th century Moscow became the national center of the struggle of Russian lands against the Mongolo-Tatar yoke, in subsequent years unification of the Russian lands around Moscow continued and, by the beginning of the 17th century, if became capital of the vast centralised Russian State.

There are a lot of beautiful palaces, old mansions, cathedrals, churches and monuments in Moscow. It is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The Kremlin and St. Basil's Cathedral are masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Tzar-Bell, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, etc. Moscow is famous for its theaters. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theaters and studios are also very popular.

Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament and the center of political life of the country.

VII. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. When was Moscow founded?

2. Why is Moscow the center of political life of Russia?

3. Do you know any places of interest in Moscow?

Вариант 8

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием —s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. My sister’s flat is large.

2. We walk along the New York’s streets.

3. She sings songs well.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. We went for a six-miles walk in the country.

2. This research centre is famous all over the world.

3. They speak about the wild duck autumn migration.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. This is the warmest room in the house.

2. Her son is taller than her daughter.

3. He is one of the best engineers at the plant.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. We saw no old buildings in this city.

2. Almost any building of New York is attractive.

3. There are some universities in the city.

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The population of New York comes to 16 million people.

2. A Dutch-man, Peter Minuit, bought Manhattan Island for 24 dollars and a barrel of rum.

3. Like New York Chicago has two different parts.

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

New York

New York is the largest city in the USA and the biggest seaport. It is the business centre of the United States. New York is situated in the mouth of the Hudson river. It was founded in 1613 by Dutch settlers.

There are five districts in the city: Manhattan, the Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn and Richmond. The total area of New York is 365 square miles or 900 square kilometres. Its population amounts to 16 million people. Among the inhabitants of New York one can meet people of almost all nationalities. They settled here during the immigration in the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century.

New York, one of the USA leading manufacturing cities, is the home of great firms and banks. The most important branches of industry are those producing vehicles, glass, chemicals and all kinds of machinery. The city has very busy traffic. Its streets and highways are full of cars and buses.

New York has many museums and art galleries which have collected works of art of many peoples and of all times. Many of them are on constant display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Whitney Museum of Art. Most of the theatres and cinemas are in or near Broadway, the longest street and the biggest shopping district in New York. The Metropolitan and Modern Arts Museums attract many visitors.

VII. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. How old is New York?

2. Into which parts is New York divided?

3. Do you know any places of interest in New York?

Вариант 9

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием —s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The first mention of the city on the Volga dates back to 1589.

2. Last month my friend read a very interesting book on Volgograd’s history.

3. Both Russian and foreign artists take part in the performances of the Volgograd Circus.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. During its four-century-old history the city experienced several dramatic events.

2. Volgograd is now a five-sea port.

3. The 40-meter-high arch which is the entrance to the Volga-Don Navigation Canal rises in the south of Volgograd.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. The Volga Hydro-Electric Power Station is the biggest in Europe.

2. The more experiments we carry out, the more data we obtain.

3. Volgograd is one of the most beautiful cities of the Russia Federation.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. Any monument in Volgograd has its own history.

2. Nobody knew anything about this experiment.

3. The names of some streets and squares are living history of the heroic city.

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Volgograd rose from its ashes more beautiful than before.

2. The entire country took part in the restoration in the hero-city.

3. The beautiful modern city Volgograd is the best monument to the heroes who defended the city on the Volga during the Great Patriotic War.

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

Volgograd

Volgograd stands on the beautiful Volga. The city is about four hundred years old. The rapid development of industry and trade, river and railway trans­port in the 19th century led to the intensive growth of the city. The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 earned the city the immortal glory of a hero-city.

The entire country participated in the restoration of the hero-city. The heroic labour of millions of people helped the city to rise from its ashes. And the best monument to the heroes who defended the city on the Volga is the beau­tiful modern city, wide squares and prospects, its parks and gardens. The city grows from year to year.

Today Volgograd is one of the biggest industrial centres: many industrial en­terprises, large and small, function here. An endless stream of steel, alu­minium, oil and steel cables, tractor's, medical equipment and building mate­rials, river boats and chemical products flows day and night from the ports and railway terminals of Volgograd to all corners of our country and abroad.

The Volga Hydro-Electric Power Station is the biggest in Europe. The total capacity of its aggregates exceeds 2.5 million kilowatts. Volgograd is now a port of five seas. Volgograd is also a cultural centre. There are higher and secondary educa­tional institutions, a lot of colleges and schools of general education there. Many foreign students from the countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America live and study in Volgograd.

VII. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. How old is Volgograd?

2. Why is Volgograd one of the biggest industrial centres?

3. Who studies in Volgograd?

Вариант 10

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием —s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Oxford gives you need.

2. There are many students from other countries.

3. The first women's college was founded in 1878.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. The four-hundred-year-old library has about five million books.

2. This university town is very beautiful.

3. Most students take English language courses.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. Summer is the warmest season of the four seasons.

2. This cake is better than my mother’s.

3. This dress is one of the most expensive in this shop.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

4. No student of that group studies German.

2. Some chapels of Oxford are five hundred years old.

3. Have you any books on Literature?

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. In the morning I will see my oldest sister.

5. My father goes by bus to his work.

6. A policeman stopped this man.

VI. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

Oxford

This university town is very beautiful. The oldest university there is Oxford. The first of its colleges was founded in 1249. The university now has thirty-five colleges and about thirteen thousand students, many of them from other countries.

There were no women at Oxford until 1878, when the first women's college Lady Margaret Hall opened. Now most colleges are open to men and women. It is not easy to get a place at Oxford University to study for a degree. But outside the university there are many smaller private colleges which offer less difficult courses and where it is easy to enroll. Most students in these private schools take business, secretarial or English language courses.

Oxford is, of course, famous for its first-class education as well as its beautiful buildings. Some of the most intelligent men and women in the country live and work here. Oxford gives them what they need: a quiet atmosphere, friendly colleagues and the four-hundred-year-old library, which has about five million books. Oxford has same of the finest architecture in Britain. Some of their colleges, chapels and libraries are there, four and even five hundred years old, and are full of books and precious paintings. You can see there many lovely gardens, where the students can read and relax in the summer months.

VII. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. How old is the first of Oxford’s colleges?

2. What can you see in Oxford?

3. What is Oxford famous for?

Домашняя контрольная работа 2

ВАРИАНТ 1

TYPES OF PROPRIETORSHIP

A business may be privately owned in three different forms. These forms are the sole proprietorship, the partnership and the corporation. The sole proprietorship is the most common in many western countries. For example, more than 80 per cent of all businesses in the United States are sole proprietorships.

But it is evident that sole proprietorships do not do the greatest volume of business. They account for only 16 percent of all business receipts, for example, in America. What kind of business is likely to be a sole proprietorship? First of all, service industries such as Laundromats, beauty shops, different repair shops, restaurants.

Answer the questions.

Are you thinking of starting your own business?

What business do you want to start?

How do we call the business if you go into it alone?

Who is going to make the decisions and control the profits in your business?

Do you need a lawyer if you want to start a sole proprietorship?

Why don't you have to consult the partners in a sole proprietorship?

How many employees are you going to hire for your business? In what cases will you fire them?

What does it mean to have unlimited liability? Are you ready for it?

What will you do, if your business fails?

What will you do to put policies into effect quickly?

What businesses have tax benefits in this country?

Can you do your books yourself?

Are you going to hire a book-keeper?

Comprehension Questions.

What are three different ways that a business can be privately owned?

What forms do most European countries have?

What forms do the businesses in the USSR have?

Name some businesses that are likely to be sole proprietorships. Why do you think so?

Name some businesses that are not likely to be sole proprietorship? Why do you think so?

Translate into English.

Мне нужен совет.

Я сам контролирую прибыль своего предприятия.

Если вы хотите заняться частным предпринимательст­вом, обратитесь к юристу.

Директор решает вопросы, связанные с наймом и увольнением.

Я боюсь иметь полную юридическую ответственность,

Я не отвечаю за производственные долги.

Малые предприятия имеют льготы по налогообложе­нию.

Хороший бухгалтер сможет вести дела лучше, чем вы.

Мне нужно нанять бухгалтера.

Мне нужно проконсультироваться с юристом.

ВАРИАНТ 2

PARTNERSHIPS

A partnership is an association of two or more persons to carry on a business for profit. When the owners of the partnership have unlimited liability they are called general partners. If partners have limited liability they are "limited partners". There may be a silent partner as well - a person who is known to the public as a member of the firm but without authority in management. The reverse of the silent partner is the secret partner - a person who takes part in management but who is not known to the public.

Any business may have the form of the partnership, for example, in such professional fields as medicine, law, accounting, insurance and stockbrokerage. Limited partnerships are a common form of ownership in real estate, oil prospecting, quarrying industries, etc.

Partnerships have more advantages than sole proprietorships one needs a big capital or diversified management. Like sole proprietorship they are easy to form and often get tax benefits from the government.

Partnerships have certain disadvantages too. One is unlimited liability. It means that each partner is responsible for all debts and is legally responsible for the whole business. Another disadvantage is that partners may disagree with each other.

Comprehension Questions.

What is the difference between a general partnership and a limited partnership?

Is there any difference between a silent partner and a secret partner? What is this difference?

In what professional fields are the partnerships found?

In what businesses is the partnership a common form?

What are the advantages of a partnership?

Discuss the disadvantages of a partnership. Would you prefer partnership or sole proprietorship for business? Give your reasons.

Translate into English.

Члены правления имеют полную юридическую ответ­ственность.

Партнер с ограниченной юридической ответственно­стью не имеет реальной власти.

Секретный партнер принимает участие в управлении, но он не известен общественности.

Я хочу вложить деньги в недвижимость.

Партнерство имеет много преимуществ.

Партнерство часто получает налоговые льготы от пра­вительства.

Мы хорошо ладим с партнером.

Наше кафе привлекает все больше и больше клиентов.

Я сделал правильный выбор. Это дело приносит много прибыли.

Мой рабочий опыт связан с менеджментом.

Она хорошо разбирается в бухгалтерском деле.

Мы вкладываем в дело одинаковый капитал.

Answer the questions.

What do you want to be busy with?

Do you want to go into business alone or with a partner?

With what partner do you get along well?

Imagine you run a shop. What will you do to attract customers?

Do you need to consult a lawyer, to make a right choice when starting the business.

What is your background?

Are you a careful person, or do you like to run a risk?

How can you combine the resources with your partner?

What services and skills can you contribute in your business?

How will you distribute profits and losses in your partnership?

What kind of partner would you like to be: a general partner or a limited partner? Why so?

ВАРИАНТ 3

CORPORATIONS

A business corporation is an institution established for the purpose of making profit. It is operated by individuals. Their shares of ownership are represented by stock certificates. A person who owns a stock certificate is called a stock-holder.

There are several advantages of the corporate form of ownership. The first is the ability to attract financial resources. The next advantage is the corporation attracts a large amount of capital it can invest it in plants, equipment and research. And the third advantage is that a corporation can often higher salaries and thus attract talented managers and specialists.

The privately owned business corporation is one type of corporation. There are some other types too. Educational, religious, charitable institutions can also incorporate. Usually such corporation does not issue stock and is nonprofit. If there is a profit it is reinvested in the institution rather than distributed to private stockholders.

In some western countries, cities, states, federal government and special agencies can establish governmental corporations. A few examples of these governmental corporations are state universities, state hospitals and city owned utilities. Governmental corporations are non-profit as a rule and usually they do not issue stock certificates.

Comprehension Questions

Who can own a corporation?

Is a corporation necessarily larger than a sole proprietorship?

What are the advantages of the corporate form of ownership?

What can you say about the disadvantages of the corporate form of ownership?

Do the corporations issue stock to stockholder?

What kind of corporations usually don't issue the stock?

What world-known corporations do you know?

What types of business usually take the corporate form of ownership?

Answer the questions.

In what corporation would you invest money?

What legal procedure do you have to follow if you want to form a corporation?

Who has final authority and supervises the daily management of a corporation?

How often do the stockholders choose the company officers?

The stockholders have unlimited liability, don't they?

In what way can a corporation act?

What do you think about the possibilities of forming corporations in this country?

In what spheres of industry is a corporate form of proprietorship the most beneficial in this country?

Translate into English.

Корпорация может выпускать и продавать акции.

Корпорация может предлагать более высокую зара­ботную плату.

Корпорация имеет больше возможностей для вовлече­ния финансовых ресурсов, чем партнерство.

Каждый год акционеры проводят собрание.

Образовательные, благотворительные, религиозные учреждения могут быть корпорациями. Подобные учрежде­ния, как правило, не приносят прибыль.

Эта корпорация прибыльна, она будет расширяться.

Сначала вы должны подать заявление на корпоратив­ный патент.

Акционеры имеют решающее слово в управлении кор­порацией.

Административные исполнители кампании осуществ­ляют постоянное руководство.

Владельцы акций проводят ежегодное собрание и вы­бирают совет директоров.

Корпорация имеет право возбуждать уголовное дело.

ВАРИАНТ 4

WHERE AND HOW TO HIRE AN EMPLOYEE?

An employer has several options to consider when he wants to hire a new employee. First of all, he may look within his own company. But if he can't find anybody suitable for the position he will have to look outside the company. If there is a personal office in the company, he can ask them to help him to find a qualified applicant. The employer can also use another valuable sources, for example, employment agencies, consulting firms, placement offices and professional societies. He can also advertise in a newspaper or in a magazine and request candidates to send in resumes.

The employer has two sets of qualifications to consider if he wants to choose from among the applicants. He must consider both professional qualifications and personal characteristics. A candidate's education, experience and skills are included in his professional qualifications. These can be listed on a resume. Personal characteristics, or personality traits must be evaluated through interviews.

Comprehension Questions.

Which options should an employer first consider when he wants to hire a new employee?

What service does a personnel department provide?

In what way can be the new employees be found outside one's company?

What qualifications does the employes consider in choosing an employee?

What is meant by "professional qualification" for a job?

What personal characteristics does the administrator consider when choosing an employee?

Translate into English.

Его должность в компании очень важна.

Администратор ставит цели, принимает на работу, увольняет.

Она не любит работать по принуждению.

Я привычен к канцелярской работе.

Управляющий должен быть компетентным.

Руководитель этой группы - очень талантливый спе­циалист.

Нам нужно нанять нового служащего.

Поместите объявление в газету.

Этот руководитель с большим опытом.

Ю.Мы должны рассмотреть два вида характеристик.

Кандидаты на должность должны послать резюме.

Вы найдете всю информацию в отделе кадров.

0братитесь в агентство по найму.

Наниматель должен обратиться в консультационную фирму.

ВАРИАНТ 5

LINE AND STAFF POSITIONS

In business, organization structure means the relationship between positions and people who hold the positions. Organization structure is very important because it provides an efficient work system as well as a system of communication.

Historically, line structure is the oldest type of organization structure. The main idea of it is direct vertical relationships between the positions and tasks of each level, and the positions and tasks above and bellow each level. For example, a sales manager may be in a line position between a vice-president of marketing and a salesman. Thus a vice president of marketing has direct authority over a sales manager. A sales manager in his turn has direct authority over a salesman. This chain of command simplifies the problems of giving and taking orders.

When a business grows in size and becomes more complex, there is a need for specialists. In such case administrators may organize staff departments and add staff specialists to do specific work. These people are usually busy with services, they are not tied in with the company product. The activities of the staff departments include an accounting, personnel, credit and advertising. Generally they do not give orders to other departments.

Comprehension Questions.

What does the organization structure mean?

What does the organization structure provide?

What is historically the oldest type of organization structure?

In what position is a sales manager in attitude to a vicepresident of marketing and a salesman?

What is the difference between line and staff departments?

Why is an advertising department or a credit department considered staff structure rather than line structure?

Answer the questions.

What is your relationship with your immediate superior?

What position in your company do you want to hold?

Do you want to be a sales-manager or a vice president of marketing? Give your reasons.

Over what positions do you have direct authority in your company?

What do you like more: to give orders or to receive orders?

Do you want to work in a staff department or in a line department? Give your reasons.

Translate into English.

Мои взаимоотношения с начальником очень хорошие.

Мой друг занимает должность главного финансиста.

Я не знаком с организационной структурой нашего предприятия.

Он больше любит отдавать приказания, чем получать их.

Я предпочитаю работать в линейном отделе.

Штабные отделы не связаны с конечным продуктом.

Структура нашего предприятия сложна.

Я больше подхожу к штабной должности, чем к линей­ной.

Мой непосредственный начальник очень пунктуален.

В сферу моего непосредственного подчинения входят три руководителя групп.

Главный финансист имеет очень большую ответст­венность.

Я уволю моего непосредственного подчиненного. Oн ленив.

ВАРИАНТ 6

ACCOUNTING

Accounting shows a financial picture of the firm. An accounting department records and measures the activity of a business. It reports on the effects of the transactions on the firms financial condition. Accounting records give a very important data. It is used by management, stockholders, creditors, independent analysts, banks and government.

Most businesses prepare regularly the two types of records. That is the income statement and balance sheet. These statements show how money was received and spent by the company.

One major tool for the analysis of accounting records is ratio analysis. A ratio analysis is the relationship of two figures. In finance we operate with three main categories of ratios. One ratio deals with profitability, for example, the Return on Investment Ratio. It is used as a measure of a firms operating efficiency.

The second set of ratios deals with assets and liabilities. It helps a company to evaluate its current financial position. The third set of ratios deals with the overall financial structure of the company. It analyses the value of the ownership of the firm.

Comprehension Questions

What is the purpose of accounting?

Who uses the data provided by accounting firms?

What are the two types of records which most businesses prepare?

What can you know analyzing the income statement and balance sheet of a company?

What is the purpose of the ratio analysis?

What categories of ratios in finance do you know?

Translate from Russian into English.

Бухгалтерский учет представляет данные для креди­торов и вкладчиков.

Они готовят отчет о доходах и балан­совый отчет в конце финансового года.

Мы определяем эффективность производства с помощью анализа коэффи­циентов.

Недвижимость является собственностью кор­пораций.

Мы проверим актив и пассив и определим сто­имость имущества за вычетом обязательств.

Мы платим большие налоги.

Сколько ты получаешь без вычетов?

ВАРИАНТ 7

CORPORATE FINANCE

Corporations need financing for the purchase of assets and the payment of expenses. The corporations can issue shares in exchange for money or property. Sometimes it is called as equity funding. The holders of the shares form the ownership of the company. Each share is represented by a stock certificate, which is negotiable. It means that one can buy and sell it. The value of a share is determined by the net assets divided by the total number of shares outstanding. The value of the share also depends on the success of the company. The greater the success, the more value the shares have.

A corporation can also get capital by borrowing. It is called debt funding. If a corporation borrows money, they give notes or bonds. They are also negotiable. But the interest has to be paid out whether business is profitable or not.

When running the corporation, management must consider both the outflow and inflow of capital. The outflow is formed by the purchase of inventory and supplies, payment of salaries^ The inflow is formed by the sale of goods and services. In the long run the inflow must be greater than the outflow. It results in a profit. In addition, a company must deduct its costs, expenses, losses on bad debts, interest on borrowed capital and other items. It helps to determine if the financial management has been profitable. The amount of risk involved is also an important factor. It determines the fund raising and it shows if a particular corporation is a good investment.

Comprehension Questions.

Why do all corporations need financing?

What does equity funding mean?

What does debt funding mean?

How is the value of a share determined?

What activities produce an inflow and outflow of capital?

What can happen if an enterprise has a greater outflow of capital than an inflow?

Why is the risk involved an important factor in determining fund raising?

Answer the questions.

What kind of funding is preferable: equity or debt?

What shares of what enterprises of your town would you buy? Explain why.

Imagine that your business is going to get capital funds by borrowing. What bond interest would you charge? Explain Why.

What should you do to produce more inflow of capital?

How can you calculate the net assets of your enterprise?

What traits of character does a stockbroker need?

Translate from Russian into English.

Наше предприятие нуждается в денежных фондах для покупки оборудования.

Я предпочитаю акционерный способ образования денежного фонда предприятия. Он привлекает большее количество капитала.

Акции и облигации могут быть переуступлены, куплены, проданы.

Я хочу купить десятипроцентные облигации.

Мы намерены выплатить все долги к началу финансо­вого года.

Ты получишь хорошую прибыль при продаже этих товаров.

Он является совладельцем компании SONY.

Покупка акций этой компании - хороший долгосроч­ный вклад.

Если речь идет о моих деньгах, я изучу годовой отчет компании.

ВАРИАНТ 8

BANKS AND BUSINESS

Banks are different in different countries. Let's speak about the banks in the United Slates of America. There, commercial banks arc classified into two main groups. First, there are national banks. They are charted and supervised by the Federal Government. Secondly, there are stale banks. They are charted and supervised by the state in which they are operated. All commercial banks can make loans to borrowers.

Ma


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